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Getting everyone in a country vaccinated is like watching software updates load: it whizzes along for the first 80% or so and then seems to take forever to finish the rest. Around 80% of the UK adult population has received at least one dose of the vaccine.
To fully vaccinate all adults is going to take a final big push. For it to be successful, those responsible for the vaccine rollout need to ensure that the public are sufficiently capable, have sufficient opportunity, and are sufficiently motivated to take the vaccine.
Capability is about having the knowledge and skills to take up the vaccine. For example, some people might not have had enough information to convince them that the vaccine is safe. They may not know when, where and how to get the vaccine. Or they may not be able to make plans to have the vaccine.
Opportunity is about having the necessary conditions to take up the vaccine. For example, someone might not have the encouragement or social support from family and friends. Or the vaccine might not be available in their region, so they don’t have the opportunity to be immunised.
Motivation is about having the desire to have the vaccine. For example, some people might not believe the vaccine will protect them from COVID-19, or they may not be able to overcome their fear of needles.
People differ in their capabilities, opportunities and motivations, so steps to increase vaccination uptake need to target the appropriate barrier. For example, it is not helpful to tell people about the positive outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination if the vaccination isn’t available to them. It would be irresponsible to increase people’s fear by telling them about the health risks of not vaccinating but not ensure they can easily get to the vaccination centres at a time that’s convenient for them.
Researchers in the UK recently reviewed the evidence about what works to encourage people to take up vaccinations in pandemics and epidemics. They found that the focus of previous interventions were mainly on changing capability (explaining why vaccines are safe and correcting misunderstandings) and motivation (telling people about the benefits of vaccination). There was little in the interventions that seemed to address opportunities.
This research formed the basis of a guidance, written by the British Psychological Society, to be considered by people in public health when trying to get people to have the vaccine. It recognised that people’s capability, opportunity and motivation to take up the vaccine differed because of factors that are often outside of people’s control.
For example, some countries have low opportunity because of the cost of the vaccine prevents mass vaccination. Some people may have low capability as there may not be enough information about vaccine safety for their particular group – for example, pregnant women. And some people may have low motivation if they are afraid of leaving the home after shielding.
A person can have different capability, opportunity and motivation over time. For instance, some may worry more about vaccine safety for the first dose but have problems with opportunity, because of a lack of local vaccination sites, for the second dose. Public health experts need to address all of these barriers to ensure that people can have the vaccine so we can all be protected from COVID-19 and get back to normal life.
A new guide has been launched to help science communicators to have conversations with individuals who buy into coronavirus conspiracy theories.
Great Ormond Street Hospital Children’s Charity (GOSH Charity) has announced a £2.5 million investment into 11 pioneering child health research projects - including one at The University of Manchester. The funding is the UK’s largest charitable grant-making scheme of its kind dedicated to paediatric rare disease research.
Is the UK government’s clean air approach good enough?
(17 June 2021)
Poor air quality is the biggest environmental health issue facing the UK, linked to an estimated 64,000 deaths a year, disproportionately affecting disadvantaged communities, and tackling this crisis should be at the top of everyone’s agenda.
Patients with a common respiratory disease had more flare-ups linked to activities that put them at risk of being exposed to mould in a study by University of Manchester and NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) researchers.
Fitbits could help patients recover faster from surgery
(14 June 2021)
Smartwatches could help prepare patients for major surgery, improving their recovery, researchers at The Christie NHS Foundation Trust in Manchester have found in a study sppnsored by The Univesity of Manchester.
The number of GPs who say they were likely to quit direct patient care within five years was 37%, even before the coronavirus pandemic, according to a new survey carried out by University of Manchester researchers.
A study led by researchers at the Universities of Manchester and York published in The Lancet Regional Health – Europe today (07/06/21) has revealed strong disparities in rates of excess deaths in England and Wales during the first 30 weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Women may have a stronger immune response to a common form of skin cancer than men, according to early research on mice and human cells.
A new model by University of Manchester researchers has proposed a way to prevent hearing loss in older people by addressing socioeconomic inequalities encountered while young.
A University of Manchester initiative which engages its students’ healthcare improvement work in hard to reach communities in the UK and beyond has come third in a prestigious international prize for global citizenship.
More than half (58%) of diagnostic errors in general practice happen during GP consultations with patients, according to new research which investigated this across general practice in England for the first time.
For the first time, researchers have looked in detail at the reasons why some people do not receive the care that they need when they attend emergency departments following self-harm. This new research was co-designed and co-authored with people who have lived experience of mental health services and self-harm.
Research has found that people who go to A&E following self-harm receive varying quality of care and this has a significant impact on what they experience subsequently.
Researchers investigating the impact of COVID-19 on the NHS in the UK reviewed the health records of 14 million people between March and December 2020 and found that the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was missed or delayed for 13,700 people. When the findings were expanded to the total population of the UK, the researchers estimated that the figure stands at around 60,000 people.
One in nine adults consistently had very poor or deteriorating mental health during the first six months of the Covid-19 pandemic according to new research.
An international team of scientists led by The University of Manchester have discovered 179 kidney genes responsible for high blood pressure.
Older people who are clinically vulnerable to COVID-19 are at greater risk of deterioration in health and social well-being during the pandemic, according to a new study.
Renowned scientist and venture capitalist, Dr Gerald Chan, has been made an Honorary Professor of Translational Medicine at the University of Manchester.
Scientists have found an association between shift work and COVID-19 positivity in hospitalised patients.
New drug is gamechanger in psoriasis treatment
(23 April 2021)
A novel drug almost entirely cleared moderate to severe psoriasis in over 60% of the patients who took part in two phase three clinical trials of a new drug.
Scientists cast new understanding of how skin repairs itself
(22 April 2021)
University of Manchester scientists have cast new light on how our skin repairs itself, bringing the possibility of regeneration of the organ a step closer.
Social media is used extensively to seek antibiotics, avoid dental treatment and provide support to people with toothache, according to new research.
Explore hidden world of microbes in new comic book
(21 April 2021)
Research led by University of Manchester scientists has inspired a comic book aiming to help young people aged 10 and above understand the wonder of microbes.
Altered immune signature linked to Long-Covid
(14 April 2021)
University of Manchester scientists have discovered a persistent alteration in the immune system of patients, six months after they have been hospitalised for Covid-19 which could be associated with poorer health outcomes.
A fungal disease diagnostic and educational programme has had a transformational impact on the mortality of HIV patients in Guatemala, according to new research.
A new national study will investigate the long-term effects of lung inflammation and scarring from COVID-19. The study, launched with £2 million of funding from UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), aims to develop treatment strategies and prevent disability.
A University of Manchester team has applied new techniques to detect and track the transmission of Covid-19 in hospital.
A UK-wide study involving patients with early breast cancer has shown their care was no less safe and effective than before the pandemic started.
A collaboration between two Barcelona institutions and the Nanomedicine Lab at The University of Manchester - aimed at treating brain disorders such as epilepsy and Parkinson’s Disease - has secured £12m in funding.